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20th Century

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April 4 Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson finds Microsoft guilty of monopolistic practices that stifle innovation.

Paul Kurtz publishes
Humanist Manifesto 2000:
A Call for New Planetary Humanism



December 12 US Supreme court orders end to recount of Florida votes in Bush v. Gore.

US gives Taliban-ruled Afghanistan $245 million in aid.

Fall Humanist Manifesto 2000 published.

April Members of the Rylstone and District chapter of the Women's Institute publish a year-2000 calendar featuring nude photographs of themselves.

First annual BattleBots competition held in Long Beach, California. 


December 25 Restoration of the Great Sphinx of Giza completed.

Genome of roundworm C. elegans sequenced.

Pfizer introduces Viagra.

June Yogi Totsuka and team determine that neutrinos have mass.

May 18 US Government and 20 states sue Microsoft for stifling innovation.

Allen Burgess wakes up with Year 2000 bug breakthrough.


21 Republican congressmen send articles of impeachment against President Bill Clinton.

President Bill Clinton bombs aspirin plant in Sudan.


The Oreo certified kosher.

Scottish scientists clone a sheep named Dolly.

Sojourner sends pictures to Earth from the surface of Mars.


Eric Schulman publishes History of the Universe in 200 Words or Less

Herdahl v. Pontotoc County School District upholds First Amendment separation clause.


Committee of Democrats and Republicans
refuse to allow Ross Perot
to debate Bill Clinton and Bob Dole.

Carsonite International introduces a highway noise barrier made of scrap tires.

Explorers discover 300-thousand-year-old cave paintings near ArdŔche River in France.

September Ford Motor Co. begins recycling phone and computer housings into grilles of trucks and vans.

October 1 England officially adopts
the metric system.

November 25 Ireland votes to
legalize divorce and remarriage.


December 8 The Grateful Dead break up after final concert.

December Calvin and Hobbes creator Bill Watterson retires.

November Nike withdraws a billboard with the name "Allah" due to pressure from Islamic organization.

October 3 O. J. Simpson found "not guilty" of murdering Nicole Simpson
and Ronald Goldman.

Aum Shinrikyo religious sect begins series of bioterrorist attacks with release of sarin gas in a Tokyo subway.


October Belgian homeopathic preacher, Luc Jouret, leads his cult of roughly 50 followers to their deaths in Canada and Switzerland.

Scientists clone human embryos.

Andrew Wiles solves Fermat's Last Theorem.

French radio station broadcasts high-frequency sound waves along with regular programming to protect listeners from mosquitoes.

Police in Skowhegan, Maine, begin pulling over tourists to award them free night on the town.

May 24 Eritrea gains Independence.

December 29 Playwright Vaclav Havel elected president of Czechoslovakia after "Velvet Revolution."


November 11 Church of England allows women to become priests. 
Planet discovered outside our solar system.

Lee v. Weisman upholds First Amendment separation clause.


October 14 Aung San Suu Kyi awarded Nobel Peace Prize.


US enters Iraq and George Bush reinstates dictator of Kuwait.

Hubble telescope put into orbit.
Big Bang confirmed.

October 25 Kazakhstan declares its independence of the Soviet Union.

June US Federal Trade Commission opens investigation of claims that Microsoft monopolizes PC operating system market.

February 14 Voyager I captures first images of solar system from outside.
Human genome project begins.

February 11 Nelson Mandela released from prison. Long Walk to Freedom.

January 14 The Simpsons debuts.

Board of Education of Westside Community Schools v. Mergens upholds First Amendment separation clause.


Iraq invades Kuwait.

Eric Lomax meets and forgives his Japanese World War II torturer, Takashi Nagase, near the site of the torture.


US invades Panama, deposing Manuel Noriega with 3,000 Panamanian civilian casualties.

French government approves use of RU486. Scientists receive patent for genetically engineered animal.


January 3 Aretha Franklin inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Edwards v. Aguillard upholds First Amendment separation clause. 


December 14 Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager begin the first nonstop, non-refueled flight around the world in Voyager.

September 7 Bishop Desmond Tutu becomes archbishop of Cape Town, South Africa.


August 29 The Beatles appear in public for the last time.

January 28 Challenger explodes, carrying teacher Christa McAuliffe and crew.

Wallace v. Jaffree upholds First Amendment separation clause.

Aguilar v. Felton upholds First Amendment separation clause.


Alec Jeffreys develops genetic fingerprinting.

Bob Geldof and Midge Ure initiate Band Aid.


December 25 Pablo Picasso vows to God that he will give up painting if God will spare his dying sister.

Followers of Indian guru Bagwan Shree Rajneesh sprinkle Salmonella on salad bars throughout their county in Oregon. See bioterror.

  1983 White House secretly gives Iran weapons to help them kill Iraqis.

William deVries replaces a human heart with the mechanical heart designed by Robert Jarvik.

First genetically engineered drug approved.

First permanent artificial heart implanted in a human being.

Sony and Philips Corporations introduce the CD player.


US provides billions in aid to Saddam Hussein for weapons to kill Iranians.

America's first space shuttle launched.


Reagan administration trains and funds contras, killing 30,000 Nicaraguans.

VigdÝs Finnbogadˇttir elected president of Iceland and the first democratically elected woman head of state.

World Health Organization declares
smallpox eradicated.

Council for Secular Humanism publishes
A Secular Humanist Declaration

April 18 Zimbabwe achieves independence.


December 8 John Lennon assassinated.

December 29  King Juan Carlos I ratifies Spain's democratic constitution.

Louise Brown, first test-tube baby, born.

Prozac approved by FDA.


August 23 Gossamer Condor, designed and built by Paul MacCready and flown by Bryan Allen.

Peter Lloyd writes
"I Got Your Number"
"Throw Your Arms Around Me"

First coronary angioplasty accomplished.


U.S. backs military rulers of El Salvador, killing 70,000 Salvadorans and four American nuns.

Voyager spacecraft lands on Mars.

Peter Lloyd writes
"Goodbye, Diane"
"Leave My Echo Behind"
"Your Voice"

Supersonic Concorde makes first flight.


Thanksgiving Day The Band plays its final concert at San Francisco's Winterland.

November 25 Suriname achieves independence from the Netherlands. 

Peter Lloyd writes
"The Life of Riley"
"What Can He Do"

October 9 Andrei Sakharov awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.


August 9 Richard M. Nixon resigns as president of the United States.

Australopithecus afarensis discovered and named Lucy.

American Psychiatric Association removes homosexuality from its list of mental disorders.


September 8 US President Gerald R. Ford pardons former
President Richard M. Nixon.

December 28 Alexander Solzhenitsyn publishes first volume of Gulag Archipelago.

Paul Kurtz and Edwin H. Wilson
publish Humanist Manifesto II

Peter Lloyd writes
"Love Is Stupid"

January 22 US Supreme Court rules in favor of freedom of choice in Roe v. Wade.

President Nixon signs Endangered Species Act into law.


September 11 US stages coup in Chile. Democratically elected president Salvador Allende assassinated. Dictator Augusto Pinochet installed. 5,000 Chileans murdered.

Henry Kissinger receives Nobel Peace Prize.

First black hole, Cygnus X-1, discovered 6,000 light-years from Earth.

Peter Lloyd writes
"Front Porch Blues"
"Goo Lah Goosh"

Richard Nixon signs bill to create series of Space Shuttles.

More than 100 nations sign the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.


September 5 Five Israeli athletes massacred at Munich Olympics.

Intel and Texas Instruments introduce
the silicon chip.
CAT scanner invented.

Peter Lloyd writes
"Come Home"

Lemon v. Kurtzman upholds First Amendment separation clause.


Peter Lloyd writes
"Rollin' Pin Woman"


July 20 Neil A. Armstrong
steps onto the Moon.

First gene cloned.

Peter Lloyd writes
"Be Good to Your Shoes"
"Iowa This Song"
"Sometimes (Sherry's Song)"
"Thomas Edison Blues"

Ted Hoff develops the microprocessor.

President Richard Nixon terminates US offensive biological warfare program and orders all stockpiled weapons destroyed.


U.S. military test biological agents on live, caged animals in the Pacific.

November 28 Jimi Hendrix plays the Philharmonic Hall in New York City. 

Epperson v. Arkansas upholds First Amendment separation clause.


November 28 Pulsar source detected.

Christian Barnard performs
first human-heart transplant.


October 10 Che Guevara executed.

Michael DeBakey performs first artificial heart implant.

September 30 Botswana achieves independence.

September 8 Star Trek premieres
with "The Man Trap."

Peter Lloyd writes
"Existential Omer"

February 3 Soviet Luna 9 soft-lands on the Moon's Ocean of Storms.


Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson accidentally discover cosmic background radiation, supporting Big Bang theory.

March 18 Alexei Leonov walks in space.

February 9 The Beatles appear on
the Ed Sullivan Show


Genetic explanation offered for altruism.

October 14 Martin Luther King Jr. awarded Nobel Peace Prize.


August 28 Martin Luther King Jr. gives "I Have A Dream" speech to more than 250,000 at the Washington Monument.

The Band forms.

Abington School District v. Schempp upholds First Amendment separation clause.


November 22 John F. Kennedy assassinated.

June 13 Medgar Evers assassinated
in Jackson, Mississippi.

US backs assassination of South Vietnamese President Diem.

December 14 Mariner Two passes Venus.

Joseph W. Charles begins waving to cars passing his house and continues for 30 years.

Rachael Carson publishes Silent Spring.

First transatlantic television transmission by satellite.

September 10 US Supreme Court rules that James Meredith be admitted to the University of Mississippi.

Engel v. Vitale upholds First Amendment separation clause.


Yuri Gagarin obits the earth.

Bob Schmidt invents a skateboard.

October 17 Rock musicial Hair premieres in New York City.


October 17 French police massacre more than 200 Algerians protesting police oppression.

Allan Sandage and Thomas Matthews discover quasars.

Jane Goodal begins chimp observations.

Theodore Maiman builds the first working laser.

February 1 Four black youths stage the first "sit-in" in Greensboro, North Carolina. 


Ruth Handler creates Barbie teenage fashion doll.

Jack Kilby and Robert N. Noyce invent the microchip.

Marvin Minsky and John McCarthy establish an artificial intelligence laboratory.

Mary Leakey finds remains of 1.8-year-old human ancestors.

September 29 Negara Brunei adopts its first constitution.

January 2 Soviet spacecraft Luna 1
reaches the moon. 


October 2 Republic of New Guinea established.

Texas Instruments develops the first integrated circuit.

Wilson Greatbatch invents the first implantable pacemaker.

September 5 Doctor Zhivago smuggled into and published in the US.

Boris Pasternak receives Nobel Prize for literature.

John Kenneth Galbraith publishes
The Affluent Society.


 "The Chipmunk Song" reaches top of music charts.

Ayn Rand publishes Atlas Shrugged.

October 4 Sputnik circles the earth.


April 14 Ampex Corporation demonstrates the first practical VCR.


December 1 Black seamstress Rosa Parks refuses to give seat to a white person on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama.

Iceland declares independence from Denmark.


Gregory Pincus, John Rock, and C.R. Garcia develop the birth control pill.

June 9 Joseph N. Welch castigates Senator Joseph McCarthy in senate chamber.

January 21 United States launches the nuclear powered submarine Nautilus.


June 27 US overthrows democratically-elected President Arbenz of Guatemala, killing 200,000 civilians.

James Watson and Francis Crick
discover the structure of DNA.
Raytheon Corporation produces
the microwave oven.

Michael DeBakey performs first coronary bypass.

March 26 Jonas Salk discovers polio vaccine.

February 15 First artificial diamond made.


June 1 US overthrows Prime Minister Mossadeq of Iran and installs Shah as dictator.

Jonas Salk develops the first effective polio vaccine.

George Jorgenson, later known as Christine, undergoes the first sex-change operation.


Zorach v. Clauson encroaches on the First Amendment separation clause.

Gregory Pincus develops the oral contraceptive.

First computer developed.

April 19 Shigeki Tanaka, Hiroshima survivor, wins the Boston Marathon. 


X-ray astronomy begins.


December 10 Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by 48 countries in the United Nations General Assembly.

January 4 Burma achieves independence from Great Britain.

McCollum v. Board of Education upholds the First Amendment separation clause.

Alfred Kinsey publishes
Sexual Behavior in the Human Male.

George de Mestral invents velcro.


January 30 Mohandas K. Gandhi assassinated.

December 27 "Buffalo" Bob Smith" premieres Howdy Doody."

November 2 Howard Hunt flies the
"Spruce Goose."

William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain invent the transistor.

Willard Libby develops radiocarbon dating.

Dead Sea scrolls discovered.

Thor Heyerdahl sails the Kon-Tiki from Peru to Polynesia, supporting the theory that pre-Incan humans could have done so.

October 14 Charles Yeager pilots the Bell X-1 beyond the speed of sound.

September 29 Dizzy Gillespie debuts with Charlie Parker at Carnegie Hall.

February 12 Edwin Land demonstrates the Polaroid camera.


Everson v. Board of Education encroaches on the First Amendment separation clause.

February 13 John Mauchly and John Eckert turn on ENIAC, first fully-electronic computer.

Commission on Human Rights established.

Benjamin Spock publishes The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care.


First television hits the market.
Percy Spencer accidentally discovers microwave cooking.

Jet streams discovered by high-altitude pilots.


DNA discovered as building blocks of genes.


November 22 Lebanon achieves independence.

Alan Turing leads development of the Colossus computer which cracks German military codes.

Jean-Paul Sartre publishes
Being and Nothingness.

April 19 Bicycle Day Albert Hofmann takes first LSD trip described in LSD: My Problem Child

Wilhelm Kolff invents dialysis machine.


December 30 Frank Sinatra plays
Paramount Theater, New York.

November 26 Casablanca
premiers in New York City.

Werner von Braun's V-2 rocket becomes the first man-made object
to break the sound barrier.

Enrico Fermi makes the first
controlled atomic chain reaction.

Jacques Cousteau and Emile Gagnan invent the aqua-lung.

February 24 Voice of America makes first international radio broadcast. 


December 28 US Congress edits
"Pledge of Allegiance."

March 17 President Roosevelt dedicates the
National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.


November 13 Walt Disney's Fantasia, opens in New York City.

Playing boys discover Stone Age paintings in Lascaux cave, France.

Igor Sikorsky invents the helicopter.

Charles Drew develops method for storing blood plasma.


October Japanese drop bags of plague-infested fleas over Ningbo and Quzhou in Zhejiang province. See biowarfare.

Ernest Heinkel flies first jet aircraft.


Laszlo Biro invents the ballpoint pen.

May 13 Louis Armstrong records "When the Saints Go Marching In."

October 30 Orson Welles broadcasts "War of the Worlds."


September 30 Neville Chamberlain predicts "peace in our time" after signing an agreement
with Adolf Hitler.

Radio telescope put into operation.
Turing machine developed.

Radiometric dating invented.

John Maynard Keynes publishes
The General Theory of Employment,
Interest and Money


May 13 John Maynard Keynes publishes General Theory of Money, Interest and Work.

January 31 Green Hornet debuts on radio.


Japanese Imperial Army Unit 731 tests anthrax, cholera, typhoid, and plague on  human subjects in occupied Manchuria, killing 10,000. See biowarfare.

Nylon invented.

General Electric Corp. introduces
fluorescent lights.

October 14 George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess premieres in New York City.

January 11 Amelia Earhart flies from Honolulu to Oakland.


James Joyce publishes Ulysses

June 9 Donald Duck born.

June 9 Edwin H. Armstrong demonstrates FM radio transmission.


December 5 Prohibition ends in the US.

Work begins on the Golden Gate Bridge.

Raymond Bragg publishes Humanist Manifesto I


December 27 Radio City
Music Hal
l opens in New York City. 

October 3 Iraq gains independence.

May 22 Amelia Earhart flies solo across the Atlantic.


Kurt G÷del presents proof of incompleteness of mathematics.

Empire State Building completed.


Electron microscope invented.

Febryary 18 Clyde Tombaugh discovers the planet Pluto.


Quartz crystal clock invented.
Edwin Hubble offers evidence that the universe is expanding.


April Cardinal O'Connell, archbishop of Boston, admonishes members of New England Catholic Club of America not to read anything about Relativity.

September 15 Alexander Fleming discovers the antibiotic effect of penicillin mold.

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi isolates vitamin C.

Margaret Mead publishes
Coming of Age in Samoa.


United State adopts Prohibition.

November 13 Holland Tunnel opens
in New York City.

Werner Heisenberg proposes uncertainty principle.

Georges Lemaţtre proposes theory which becomes know as Big Bang.

May 21 Charles Lindbergh crosses the Atlantic alone in the Spirit of St. Louis.

January 7 The Harlem Globetrotters
play first game in Hinckley, Illinois. 


Erwin Schr÷dinger introduces wave mechanics.

X-rays create mutations in fruit flies.

March 16 Robert Goddard launches first liquid-fueled rocket.


Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan meet in the Scopes Monkey Trial. 1925  

Stars discovered beyond Milky Way galaxy.

Louis de Broglie proposes that all matter acts as both wave and particle.

John Logie Baird builds a working television.

Earle Dickson invents the Band-Aid.

June 5 Ernst Alexanderson transmits the first facsimile message across the Atlantic Ocean.

February 12 George Gershwin premieres A Rhapsody in Blue


Vatican orders all priests to resign from the Partito Popolare.

Germs causing tooth decay identified.

Vladimir Zworykin invents the electronic camera tube.

Electrolux produces the first electronic refrigerators.

January 9 Juan de la Cierva flies his autogyro.


Vatican Secretary of State supports Mussolini's dissolution of the Partito Popolare,

November 26 Howard Carter discovers tomb of Tutankhamen.

February 11 Frederick Banting and Charles Best isolate and successfully treat diabetes with insulin.

King Tutankhamen's tomb discovered.

First dinosaur eggs discovered.

Japan launches Hosho, the aircraft carrier.


October 2 Pope Pius XI orders Italian clergy not to identify themselves with the Partito Popolare, ensuring rise of Mussolini.

19th Amendment to the US Constitution gives women the right to vote.


New York Times article ridicules rockets in space.

Ernest Rutherford splits an atom artificially.


January 16 Prohibition begins in the US.

November 11 World War I ends.



British government passes Balfour Declaration.

Einstein introduces his general theory of relativity.

Alexander Graham Bell speaks with Thomas Watson over an
intercontinental telephone line.


February 8 D.W. Griffith releases
The Clansman, later titled The Birth of a Nation.

German bioterrorits infect livestock sent to neutral nations with glanders and anthrax.

Panama Canal completed and opened.

February 13 ASCAP founded.


June 28 Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated, triggering World War I

December 1 Henry Ford installs the first moving assembly line at Highland Park, Michigan, to produce the Model T in 93 minutes.


Alfred Wegener proposes theory of
continental drift.


November 28 Emiliano Zapata proposes Plan of Ayala.

Norwegian Ronald Amundsen reaches the south pole.

Victor Hess detects cosmic rays.

Ernest Rutherford and Ernest Marsden discover structure of the atom.


October 5 Monarchy overthrown in Portugal.

Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell publishes Principia Mathematica.

March 28 Henri Fabre launches his hydrovion.

January 13 Lee Deforest broadcasts operas Il Pagliacci and Cavalleria Rusticana from the Metropolitan Opera House of New York. 


April 6 Peary and Henson reach the North Pole. 

February 12 NAACP founded.


Henry Ford produces the first Model T.

January 28 Julia Ward Howe elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters.


Maria Montessori establishes her first preschool in Rome.

Rachael Carson born.

Leo Baekeland patents bakelite, the first plastic.


Frederick Hopkins identifies vitamins
and their role in nutrition.


Einstein introduces his special theory of relativity.


November 23 Enrico Caruso debuts in New York City.

Orville and Wilbur Wright make a controlled, engine-powered flight.


November President Teddy Roosevelt refuses to shoot a bear tied to a tree.

January 28 Andrew Carnegie establishes the Carnegie Institution.

January 11 Popular Mechanics premiers.


December 12 Guglielmo Marconi
receives a radio transmission
from across the Atlantic.

December 2 King C. Gillette invents the safety razor.

Karl Landsteiner identifies three blood types.

Willis Carrier invents industrial air conditioning.


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